Questions & Answers of Signals and Systems

Question No. 16

Which one of the following is an eigen function of the class of all continuous-time, linear, timeinvariant systems (ut denotes the unit-step function)?

Question No. 17

A continuous-time function x(t) is periodic with period T. The function is sampled uniformly with a sampling period Ts. In which one of the following cases is the sampled signal periodic?

Question No. 18

Consider the sequence xn=anun+bnun, where un denotes the unit-step sequence and 0<a<b<1. The region of convergence (ROC) of the z-transform of xn is

Question No. 20

A continuous-time sinusoid of frequency 33 Hz is multiplied with a periodic Dirac impulse train of frequency 46 Hz. The resulting signal is passed through an ideal analog low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 23 Hz. The fundamental frequency (in Hz) of the output is _________

Question No. 40

The Laplace transform of the causal periodic square wave of period T shown in the figure below is


Question No. 41

A network consisting of a finite number of linear resistor (R), inductor (L), and capacitor (C) elements, connected all in series or all in parallel, is excited with a source of the form


The source has nonzero impedance. Which one of the following is a possible form of the output measured across a resistor in the network?

Question No. 42

A first-order low-pass filter of time constant T is excited with different input signals (with zero initial conditions up to t = 0). Match the excitation signals X, Y, Z with the corresponding time responses for t ≥ 0:
X: Impulse       P:1-e-t/T
Y: Unit step    Q:t-T1-e-t/T
Z: Ramp   R:e-t/T

Question No. 45

Consider the signal


If Xejω is the discrete-time Fourier transform of x[n],
then $\frac1n\int_{-\mathrm\pi}^\mathrm\pi X\left(e^{j\omega}\right)\sin^2\left(2\omega\right)d\omega$ is equal to _________

Question No. 120

The energy of the signal xt = sin4πt4πt is ________

Question No. 142

A continuous-time filter with transfer function Hs=2s+6s2+6s+8 is converted to a discretetime filter with transfer function Gz=2z2-0.5032 zz2-0.5032 z+k so that the impulse response of the continuous-time filter, sampled at 2 Hz, is identical at the sampling instants to the impulse response of the discrete time filter. The value of k is ________

Question No. 143

The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the 4-point sequence

xn=0,x1,x2,x3=3,2,3,4 is


IfX1k is the DTF of 12-point sequence x1n=3,0,0,2,0,0,3,0,0,4,0,0

the value of X18X111 is ________

Question No. 216

Consider the signal xt=cos6πt+sin8πt, where t is in seconds. The Nyquist sampling rate (in samples/second) for the signal yt=x2t+5 is

Question No. 217

If the signal xt=sintπt*sintπt with * ; denoting the convolution operation, then x(t) is equal to

Question No. 218

A discreate-time signal  xn=δn-3+δn-5 has z-transform X(z). If Y(z)=X(-z) is the z-transform of another signal y[n],then

Question No. 240

A signal $2\cos\left(\frac{2\mathrm\pi}3t\right)-\;\cos\;\left(\mathrm{πt}\right)$ is the input to an LTI system with the transfer function


If Ck denotes the kth coefficient in the exponential Fourier series of the output signal, then C3 is equal to

Question No. 241

The ROC (region of convergence) of the z-transform of a discrete-time signal is represented by the shaded region in the z-plane. If the signal xn=2.0n,-<n<+ , then the ROC of its z-transform is represented by


Question No. 245

A continuous-time speech signal xa(t) is sampled at a rate of 8 kHz and the samples are subsequently grouped in blocks, each of size N. The DFT of each block is to be computed in real time using the radix-2 decimation-in-frequency FFT algorithm. If the processor performs all operations sequentially, and takes 20 μs for computing each complex multiplication (including multiplications by 1 and −1) and the time required for addition/subtraction is negligible, then the maximum value of N is __________

Question No. 246

The direct form structure of an FIR (finite impulse response) filter is shown in the figure.

The filter can be used to approximate a

Question No. 27

The result of the convolution x (–t) * δ(–t – to) is

Question No. 28

The waveform of a periodic signal x(t) is shown in the figure.

A signal g(t) is defined by gt=xt-12 . The average power of g(t) is ______.

Question No. 53

Two sequences [a,b,c] and [A,B,C] are related as,

ABC=1111W3-1W3-21W3-2W3-4abcWhere W3=ej2π3

If another sequence [pqr] is derived as,


then the relationship between the sequences [p, q, r] and [a,b,c] is

Question No. 54

For the discrete time system shown in the figure, the poles of the system transfer function are Located at

Question No. 55

The pole-zero diagram of a causal and stable discrete-time system is shown in the figure. The zero at the origin has multiplicity 4. The impulse response of the system is h[n]. If h[0] = 1, we can conclude.

Question No. 111

The bilateral Laplace transform of a function ft=1if atb0Other wise is

Question No. 115

The magnitude and phase of the complex Fourier series coefficients ak of a periodic signal x(t) are shown in the figure. Choose the correct statement from the four choices given. Notation C is the set of complex numbers, R is the set of purely real numbers, and P is the set of purely imaginary numbers.

Question No. 127

Let the signal f(t) = 0 outside the interval [T1, T2], where T1 and T2 are finite. Furthermore, ft< . The region of convergence (RoC) of the signal’s bilateral Laplace transform F(s) is

Question No. 128

Two casual discrete-time signals x[n] and y[n] are related as yn=m=0nxm . If the z-transform of yn is 2zz-12 , the value of x[2] is _______.

Question No. 133

The signal cos10πt+π4 is ideally sampled at a sampling frequency of 15 Hz. The sampled signal is passed through a filter with impulse response sinπtπtcos40πt-π2 . The filter output is

Question No. 136

Consider the differential equation dxdt = 10-0.2x with initial condition x(0) = 1. The response x(t) for t>0 is

Question No. 153

Input x(t) and output y(t) of an LTI system are related by the differential equation y''(t) - y-(t) - 6y(t) = x(t). If the system is neither causal nor stable, the impulse response h(t) of the system is

Question No. 154

Consider two real sequences with time – origin marked by the bold value,

x1[n] ={1,2,3,0} , x2[n] ={1,3,2,1}

Let X1(k) and X2(k) be 4-point DFTs of x1[n] and x2[n] , respectively . Another sequence x3[n] is derived by taking 4-point inverse DFT of X3(k) =X1(k)X2(k) .

The value of x3[2] is_____.

Question No. 155

Let x(t) = α s(t) +s(–t) with s(t) = βe-4t u(t) , where u(t) is unit step function . If the bilateral Laplace transform of x(t) is

Xs = 16s2- 16-4 <Re{s}<4;

Then the value of β is______.

Question No. 214

Consider the function gt=e-tsin2πtut where u(t) is the unit step function. The area under g(t) is _____.

Question No. 215

The value of $\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty n\left(\frac12\right)^n$ is _____.

Question No. 227

The impulse response of an LTI system can be obtained by

Question No. 228

Consider a four-point moving average filter defined by the equation yn=i=03αixn-i . The condition on the filter coefficients that results in a null at zero frequency is

Question No. 252

Suppose x[n] is an absolutely summable discrete-time signal. Its z-transform is a rational function with two poles and two zeroes. The poles are at z=±2j . Which one of the following statements is TRUE for the signal x[n]?

Question No. 253

A realization of a stable discrete time system is shown in the figure. If the system is excited by a unit step sequence input x[n], the response y[n] is

Question No. 254

Let x~n=1+cosπn8 be a periodic signal with period 16. Its DFS coefficients are defined by $a_k=\frac1{16}\sum\limits_{n=0}^{15}\widetilde x\left[n\right]exp\left(-j\frac{\mathrm\pi}8kn\right)$ for all k. The value of the coefficients a31 is_____.

Question No. 255

Consider a continuous-time signal defined as
       $x\left(t\right)=\left(\frac{\sin\left(\pi t/2\right)}{\left(\pi t/2\right)}\right)\ast\sum_\limits{n=-\infty}^\infty\delta\left(t-10n\right)$
where '*' denotes the convolution operation and t is in seconds. The Nyquist sampling rate (in samples/sec) for x(t) is ___________.

Question No. 259

Two sequences x1n and x2n have the same energy. Suppose x1n=α 0.5n un, where α is a positive real number and un is the unit step sequence. Assume

x2n=1.5 for n=0,10 otherwise.

Then the value of α is_______.

Question No. 261

The complex envelope of the bandpass signal xt=-2sinπt/5πt/5sin(πt-π4),centered about f=12Hz, is

Question No. 13

C is a closed path in the z-plane given by |z|=3. The value of the integral $\oint_C\left(\frac{z^2-z+4j}{z+2j}\right)dz$

Question No. 27

A discrete-time signal xn=sinπ2n,n being an integer is

Question No. 28

Consider two real valued signals, x(t) band-limited to [ –500 Hz, 500 Hz] and y(t) bandlimited to [ –1 kHz, 1 kHz]. For z(t) = x(t)•y(t), the Nyquist sampling frequency (in kHz) is ______.

Question No. 29

A continuous, linear time-invariant filter has an impulse response h(t) described by

ht=3for 0t30otherwise

When a constant input of value 5 is applied to this filter, the steady state output is_____.

Question No. 37

For a function g(t), it is given that -+gte-jwtdt=ωe-2ω2 for any real value ω.
If yt=-tgtdτ, , then -tytdt  is

Question No. 53

Let  xn=-19nun--13nu-n-1 The Region of Convergence (ROC) of the z-transform of x[n]

Question No. 54

Consider a discrete time periodic signal xn=sinπn5. Let ak be the complex Fourier series coefficients of xn. The coefficients ak are non-zero when k=BM±1 where M is any integer. The value of B is______.

Question No. 55

A system is described by the following differential equation, where u(t) is the input to the system and y(t) is the output of the system


When y(0) =1 and u(t) is a unit step function, y(t) is

Question No. 127

An FIR system is described by the system function


The system is

Question No. 128

Let x[n]=x[-n]. Let X(z) be the z-transform of x[n]. If 0.5+j 0.25 is a zero of ,X(z) which one of the following must also be a zero of X(z)

Question No. 129

Consider the periodic square wave in the figure shown

The ratio of the power in the 7th harmonic to the power in the 5th harmonic for this waveform is closest in value to _______.

Question No. 153

Consider a discrete-time signal

xn=nfor 0n100otherwise.

If y[n] is the convolution of x[n] with itself, the value of y[4] is _________.

Question No. 154

The input-output relationship of a causal stable LTI system is given as

yn=αyn-1+β xn

If the impulse response h[n] of this system satisfies the condition n=0hn=2, the relationship between α and β is

Question No. 155

The value of the integral -sinc25tdt is ________.

Question No. 227

Let xt=cos10πt+cos30πt be sampled at 20 Hz and reconstructed using an ideal low-pass filter with cut-off frequency of 20 Hz. The frequency/frequencies present in the reconstructed signal is/are

Question No. 228

For an all-pass system Hz=z-1-b1-az-1, where He-jω=1 for all ω
if Rea0,Ima0,then b equals

Question No. 231

The input -3e2tut, where ut is the unit step function, is applied to a system with transfer function s-2s+3. If the initial value of the output is −2, then the value of the output at steady state is _______.

Question No. 253

Let H1z=1-pz-1-1,H2z=1-qz-1-1,Hz=H1z+rH2z. The quantities p,q,r are real numbers. Consider p=12,q=-14,r<1. If the zero of Hz lies on the unit circle, then r = ________

Question No. 254

Let ht denote the impulse response of a causal system with transfer function 1s+1. Consider the following three statements.

S1: The system is stable.

S2: ht+1ht is independent of t for t >0.

S3: A non-causal system with the same transfer function is stable.

For the above system,

Question No. 255

The z-transform of the sequence x[n] is given by Xz=11-2z-12  , with the region of convergence z>2. Then, x2 is ________.

Question No. 259

Let Xt be a wide sense stationary (WSS) random process with power spectral density Sxf. If Yt is the process defined as Yt=X2t-1, the power spectral density Syf is

Question No. 324

For a given sample-and-hold circuit, if the value of the hold capacitor is increased, then

Question No. 327

A Fourier transform pair is given by


where u[n] denotes the unit step sequence. The values of A is _________

Question No. 328

A real-valued signal x(t) limited to the frequency band fw2 is passed through a linear time invariant system whose frequency response is


The output of the system is

Question No. 329

The sequence xn=0.5nun, where un is the unit step sequence, is convolved with itself to obtain yn. Then n=-+yn is _______.

Question No. 338

The unilateral Laplace transform of ft is 1s2+