A good transimpedance amplifier has
The circuit shown in the figure is used to provide regulated voltage (5 V) across the 1k$\Omega$ resistor. Assume that the Zener diode has a constant reverse breakdown voltage for a current range, starting from a minimum required Zener current, $ I_{Zmin}=2 $ mA to its maximum allowable current. The input voltage $ V_1 $ may vary by 5% from its nominal value of 6 V. The resistance of the diode in the breakdown region is negligible.
The value of $R$ and the minimum required power dissipation rating of the diode, respectively, are
A dc current of 26 $\mu$A flows through the circuit shown. The diode in the circuit is forward biased and it has an ideality factor of one. At the quiescent point, the diode has a junction capacitance of 0.5 nF . Its neutral region resistances can be neglected. Assume that the room temperature thermal equivalent voltage is 26 mV.
For $ \omega=2\times10^6 $ rad/s , the amplitude of the small-signal component of diode current (in $\mu$A, correct to one decimal place) is _______.
An op-amp based circuit is implemented as shown below.
In the above circuit, assume the op-amp to be ideal. The voltage (in volts, correct to one decimal place) at node A, connected to the negative input of the op-amp as indicated in the figure is _________.
For a narrow base PNP BJT, the excess minority carrier concentration ($\triangle n_E$ for emitter,$\triangle p_B$ for base,$\triangle n_C$ for collector) normalized to equilibrium minority carrier concentration ($n_{E0}$ for emitter,$n_{B0}$ for base,$n_{C0}$ for collector) in the quasi-neutral emitter, base and collector regions are shown below. Which one of the following biasing modes is the transistor operating in?
For the operational amplifier circuit shown, the output saturation voltages are ±15V. The upper and lower threshold voltages for the circuit are, respectively,
A good transconductance amplifier should have
A Miller effect in the context of a Common Emitter amplifier explains
In the figure shown, the npn transistor acts as a switch.
For the input V_{in}(t) as shown in figure, the transistor switches between the cut-off and saturation regions of operation, when T is large. Assume collector-to-emitter voltage at saturation V_{CE(sat)}=0.2V and base-to-emitter voltage V_{BE(sat)}=0.7V. The minimum value of the common-base current gain($\alpha$) of the transistor for the switching should be___________.
For the circuit, assume that the NMOS transistor. Its threshold voltage V_{tn}=1 V and its transconductance parameter ${\mu}_{n}{C}_{ox}\left(\frac{W}{L}\right)=1mA/{V}^{2}$. Neglect channel length modulation and body bias effect. Under these conditions, the drain current I_{D} in mA is_____________.
For the DC analysis of the Common-Emitter amplifier shown, neglect the base current ans assume that the emitter and collector currents are equal. Given that V_{T}=25 mV, V_{BE}=0.7 mV, and the BJT output resistance $\gamma_0$ is practically infinite. Under these conditions, the midband voltage gain magnitude, ${A}_{v}=\left|{v}_{0}/{v}_{i}\right|V/V$, is________.
The amplifier circuit shown in the figure is implemented using a compensated operation amplifier (op-amp), and has an open-loop voltage gain, A_{0}=10^{5} V/V and an open-loop cut-off frequency, f_{c}=8 Hz. The voltage gain of the amplifier at 15 kHz, in V/V is_____________.
An n-channel enhancement mode MOSFET is biased at V_{GS }> V_{TH} and V_{DS} (V_{GS }- V_{TH}), where V_{GS} is the get-to-source voltage, V_{DS} is the drain-to-source voltage and V_{TH} is the threshold voltage. Considering channel length modulation effect to be significant, the MOSFET behaves as a
An npn bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is opening in the active region. If the reverse bias across the base-collection junction is increased, then
Consider an n-channel MOSFET having width W, length L, electron mobility in the channel µ_{n} and oxide capacitance per unit area C_{ox}. If gate-to-source voltage V_{GS} = 0.7 V, drain-to-source voltage V_{DS} = 0.1 V, (µ_{n} C_{ox}) = 100 µA/V^{2}, threshold voltage V_{TH} = 0.3 V and (W/ L) = 50, then the transconductance g_{m}(in mA/V) is_________.
The output V_{0} of the diode circuit shown in the figure is connected to an averaging DC voltmeter. The reading on the DC voltmeter in Volts, neglecting the voltage drop across the diode, is_________.
Consider the circuit shown in the figure. Assume base-to-emitter voltage V_{BE} = 0.8 V and common-base current gain ($\alpha$) of the transistor is unity.
The value of the collector-to-emitter voltage V_{CE} (in volt) is__________.
A MOS capacitor is fabricated on p-type Si (Silicon) where the metal work function is 4.1 eV and election affinity of Si is 4.0 eV. E_{C }- E_{F}=0.9 eV, where E_{C} and E_{F} are the condition band minimum and the Fermi energy levels of Si, respectively. Oxide ${\in}_{r}=3.9,{\in}_{o}=8.85\times {10}^{-14}\mathrm{F}/cm$ , oxide thickness t_{ox}=0.1 µm and electronic charge q =1.6 × 10^{-19} C. If the measured flat band voltage of this capacitor is -1 V, then the magnitude of the fixed charge at the oxide-semiconductor interface, in nC/cm^{2}, is_________.
Two n-channel MOSFETs, T1 and T2, are identical in all respects except that the width of T2 is double that of T1. Both the transistors are biased in the saturation region of operation, but the gate overdrive voltage (V_{GS}-V_{TH}) of T2 is double that of T1, where V_{GS} and V_{TH} are the gate-to-source voltage and threshould voltage of the transistors, respectively. If the drain current and transconduction of T1 are I_{D1 }and g_{m}_{1} respectively, the corresponding values of these two parameters for T2 are
Assuming that transistors M_{1 }and M_{2} are identical and have a threshold voltage of 1 V, the state of transistors M_{1 }and M_{2} are respectively
In the circuit shown, transistors Q_{1 }and Q_{2} are biased at a collector current of 2.6 mA. Assuming that transistor current gains are sufficiently large to assume collector current equal to emitter current and thermal voltage of 26 mV, the magnitude of voltage gain $\raisebox{1ex}{${V}_{0}$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{${V}_{5}$}\right.$ in the mid-band frequency range is__________ (up to second decimal place).
In the voltage reference circuit shown in the figure, the op-amp is ideal and the transistors Q_{1}, Q_{2}...., Q_{32} are identical in all respects and have infinitely large values of common-emitter current gain ($ \beta $). The collector current (I_{c}) of the transistors is related to their base-emitter voltage (V_{BE}) by the relation I_{c} = I_{s} exp (V_{BE} / V_{T}), where I_{s} is the saturation current. Assume that the voltage V_{P} shown in the figure is 0.7 V and the thermal voltage V_{T} = 26 mV.
The output voltage V_{out} (in volts) is__________
The load current I_{0} through R_{L} is
The number of times the LED glows is ________
The value of R_{2} (in Ω) for which I_{2}=100 μA is ________
The steady state magnitude of the capacitor voltage V_{C} (in volts) is ______
The value of the ripple u (in volts) is ________
In the opamp circuit shown, the Zener diodes Z1 and Z2 clamp the output voltage V_{0} to +5 V or −5 V. The switch S is initially closed and is opened at time t=0.
The time t=t_{1} (in seconds) at which V_{0} changes state is ________
The output voltage (in millivolts) is ________
For the circuit with ideal diodes shown in the figure, the shape of the output (V_{out}) for the given sine wave input (V_{in}) will be
In the circuit shown, assume that the opamp is ideal. The bridge output voltage V_{0} (in mV) for $\delta $ = 0.05 is ____.
The circuit shown in the figure has an ideal opamp. The oscillation frequency and the condition to sustain the oscillations, respectively, are
In the circuit shown, I_{1} = 80 mA and I_{2} = 4 mA. Transistors T_{1} and T_{2} are identical. Assume that the thermal voltage V_{T} is 26 mV at 27 ^{o}C. At 50 ^{o}C, the value of the voltage V_{12} = V_{1} –V_{2} (in mV) is _____.
If the circuit shown has to function as a clamping circuit, then which one of the following conditions should be satisfied for the sinusoidal signal of period $ T $ ?
In the circuit shown, $ V_0=V_A $ for switch SW in position $ A $ and $ V_0=V_B $ for SW in position $ B $. Assume that the opamp is ideal. The value of $\frac{{V}_{OB}}{{V}_{OA}}$ is ___________.
In the bistable circuit shown, the ideal opamp has saturation levels of $\pm $ 5 V. The value of R_{1}(in kΩ) that gives a hysteresis width of 500 mV is _________
The diode in the circuit given below has V_{ON} = 0.7 V but is ideal otherwise. The current (in mA) in the 4 kΩ resistor is
Assuming that the opamp in the circuit shown below is ideal, the output voltage V_{0} (in volts)
For the voltage regulator circuit shown, the input voltage (V_{in}) is 20 V ± 20% and the regulated output voltage (V_{out}) is 10 V. Assume the opamp to be ideal. For a load R_{L} drawing 200 mA, the maximum power dissipation in Q_{1} (in Watts) is __________.
In the ac equivalent circuit shown, the two BJTs are biased in active region and have identical parameters with β > > 1. The open circuit small signal voltage gain is approximately _____.
In the circuit shown in the figure, the BJT has a current gain ($\beta $) of 50. For an emitter-base voltage V_{EB} = 600 mV, the emitter-collector voltage V_{EC} (in Volts) is _____.
In the circuit shown using an ideal opamp, the 3-dB cut-off frequency (in Hz) is _____.
In the circuit shown, assume that diodes D_{1} and D_{2} are ideal. In the steady state condition, the average voltage V_{ab} (in Volts) across the 0.5μF capacitor is _____.
In the circuit shown, assume that the opamp is ideal. If the gain (V_{o}/V_{in}) is –12, the value of R (in kΩ) is ____.
In the circuit shown, both the enhancement mode NMOS transistors have the following characteristics: ${k}_{n}={\mu}_{n}{C}_{ox}\left(W/L\right)=1mA/{V}^{2};{V}_{TN}=1V$. Assume that the channel length modulation parameter $\lambda $ is zero and body is shorted to source. The minimum supply voltage V_{DD} (in volts) needed to ensure that transistor M_{1} operates in saturation mode of operation is _____.
In the circuit shown, assume that the diodes D_{1} and D_{2} are ideal. The average value of voltage V_{ab} (in Volts), across terminals ‘a’ and ‘b’ is ______.
A good current buffer has
In the ac equivalent circuit shown in the figure, if i_{in} is the input current and R_{F} is very large, the type of feedback is
In the low-pass filter shown in the figure, for a cut-off frequency of 5 kHz , the value of R_{2} (in kΩ) is _____________.
In the following circuit employing pass transistor logic, all NMOS transistors are identical with a threshold voltage of 1 V. Ignoring the body-effect, the output voltages at P, Q and R are,
In the voltage regulator circuit shown in the figure, the op-amp is ideal. The BJT has V_{BE} = 0.7 V and β = 100, and the zener voltage is 4.7 V. For a regulated output of 9 V, the value of R (in Ω) is _______.
In the circuit shown, the op-amp has finite input impedance, infinite voltage gain and zero input offset voltage. The output voltage V_{OUT} is
For the amplifier shown in the figure, the BJT parameters are V_{BE} = 0.7 V, β = 200, and thermal voltage V_{T} = 25 mV. The voltage gain (v_{o}/v_{i}) of the amplifier is _______
.
The feedback topology in the amplifier circuit ( the base bias circuit is not shown for simplicity) in the figure is