Questions & Answers of First Order Logic

Question No. 2

Consider the first-order logic sentence $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{F:\forall x\left(\exists yR\left(x,y\right)\right)}$. Assuming non-empty logical domains, which of the sentence below are implied by F?

$\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\mathrm I.\;\exists y\left(\exists xR\left(x,y\right)\right)}$

$\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\mathrm{II}.\;\exists y\left(\forall xR\left(x,y\right)\right)}$

$\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\mathrm{III}.\;\forall y\left(\exists xR\left(x,y\right)\right)}$

$\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\mathrm{IV}.\;\neg\exists y\left(\forall y\neg R\left(x,y\right)\right)}$

Question No. 30

Let fsa and pda be two predicates such that fsa(x) means x is a finite state automaton, and pda(y) means that y is a pushdown automaton. Let equivalent be another predicate such that equivalent (a, b) means a and b are equivalent. Which of the following first order logic statements represents the following:
Each finite state automaton has an equivalent pushdown automaton.

Question No. 22

Let Graph(x) be a predicate which denotes that x is a graph. Let Connected(x) be a predicate which denotes that x is connected. Which of the following first order logic sentences DOES NOT represent the statement: “Not every graph is connected”?