Questions & Answers of Memory Hierarchy: Cache, Main Memory and Secondary Storage

Question No. 25

Consider a two-level cache hierarchy with L1 and L2 caches. An application incurs 1.4 memory accesses per instruction on average. For this application, the miss rate of L1 cache is 0.1; the L2 cache experiences, on average, 7 misses per 1000 instructions. The miss rate L2 expressed correct to two decimal places is _________.

Question No. 51

Consider a 2-way set associative cache with 256 blocks and uses LRU replacement, Initially the cache is empty. Conflict misses are those misses which occur due to contention of multiple blocks for the same cache set. Compulsory misses occur due to first time access to the block. The following sequence of accesse to memory blocks

(0, 128, 256, 128, 0, 128, 256, 128, 1, 129, 257, 129, 1, 129, 257, 129)

is repeated 10 times. The number of conflict misses experinced by the cache is ____________ . 

Question No. 54

A cache memory unit with capacity of N words and block size of B words is to be designed. If it is designed as a direct mapped cache, the length of the TAG field is 10 bits. If the cache unit is now designed as a 16-way set-associative cache, the length of the TAG field is ______ bits.

Question No. 129

In a two-level cache system, the access times of L1 and L2 cache are 1 and 8 clock cycles, respectively. The miss penalty from the L2 cache to main memory is 18 clock cycles. The miss rate of L1 cache is twise that of L2. The average memory access time (AMAT) of this cache system is 2 cycles. The miss rate of L1 and L2 respectively are:

Question No. 145

The read access times and the hit ratio for different caches in a memory hierachy are as given below.

Cache

Read access time

(in nanosecond)

Hit ratio
I-cache 2 0.8
D-cache 2 0.9
L2-cache 8 0.9

The read access time of main memory is 90 nanoseconds. Assume that the caches use the referrd-word-first read policy and the write back policy. Assume that all the cache are direct mapped caches. Assume that the dirty bit is always 0 for all the blocks in the caches. In execution of a program, 60% of memory read are for instruction fetch and 40% are for memory operand fetch. The average read access time in nanoseconds (up to 2 decimal place) is ____________ .  

Question No. 153

Consider a machine with a byte addreassable main memory of 223 bytes divided into blocks of size 32 bytes. Assume that a direct mapped cache having 512 cache line is used with this machine. The size of the tag filed in bites is __________.

Question No. 142

The width of the physical address on a machine is 40 bits. The width of the tag field in a 512 KB 8-way set associative cache is _______ bits.

Question No. 234

Consider a machine with a byte addressable main memory of 220 bytes, block size of 16 bytes and a direct mapped cache having 212 cache lines. Let the addresses of two consecutive bytes in main memory be (E201F)16 and (E2020)16. What are the tag and cache line address (in hex) for main memory address (E201F)16?

Question No. 54

An access sequence of cache block addresses is of length N and contains n unique block addresses.The number of unique block addresses between two consecutive acceses to the same block address is bounded above by k. What is the miss ratio if the access sequence is passed through a cache of  associativity A ≥ k exercising least-recently-used replacement policy?

Question No. 119

A 4-way set-associative cache memory unit with a capacity of 16 KB is built using a block size of 8 words. The word length is 32 bits. The size of the physical address space is 4 GB. The number of bits for the TAG field is _____

Question No. 153

In designing a computer’s cache system, the cache block (or cache line) size is an important parameter. Which one of the following statements is correct in this context?

Question No. 154

If the associativity of a processor cache is doubled while keeping the capacity and block size unchanged, which one of the following is guaranteed to be NOT affected?

Question No. 165

Consider a main memory system that consists of 8 memory modules attached to the system bus, which is one word wide. When a write request is made, the bus is occupied for 100 nanoseconds (ns) by the data, address, and control signals. During the same 100 ns, and for 500 ns thereafter, the addressed memory module executes one cycle accepting and storing the data. The (internal) operation of different memory modules may overlap in time, but only one request can be on the bus at any time. The maximum number of stores (of one word each) that can be initiated in 1 millisecond is ____________

Question No. 254

The memory access time is 1 nanosecond for a read operation with a hit in cache, 5 nanoseconds for a read operation with a miss in cache, 2 nanoseconds for a write operation with a hit in cache and 10 nanoseconds for a write operation with a miss in cache. Execution of a sequence of instructions involves 100 instruction fetch operations, 60 memory operand read operations and 40 memory operand write operations. The cache hit-ratio is 0.9. The average memory access time (in nanoseconds) in executing the sequence of instructions is __________.

Question No. 46

A RAM chip has a capacity of 1024 words of 8 bits each (1K × 8). The number of 2 × 4 decoders with enable line needed to construct a 16K × 16 RAM from 1K × 8 RAM is

Question No. 54

A computer has a 256 KByte, 4-way set associative, write back data cache with block size of 32 Bytes. The processor sends 32 bit addresses to the cache controller. Each cache tag directory entry contains, in addition to address tag, 2 valid bits, 1 modified bit and 1 replacement bit.

The number of bits in the tag field of an address is

Question No. 55

A computer has a 256 KByte, 4-way set associative, write back data cache with block size of 32 Bytes. The processor sends 32 bit addresses to the cache controller. Each cache tag directory entry contains, in addition to address tag, 2 valid bits, 1 modified bit and 1 replacement bit.

The size of the cache tag directory is

Question No. 43

An 8KB direct-mapped write-back cache is organized as multiple blocks, each of size 32-bytes. The processor generates 32-bit addresses. The cache controller maintains the tag information for each cache block comprising of the following.
1 Valid bit
1 Modified bit
As many bits as the minimum needed to identify the memory block mapped in the cache.
What is the total size of memory needed at the cache controller to store meta-data (tags) for the cache?

Question No. 7

A main memory unit with a capacity of 4 megabytes is built using 1M×1-bit DRAM chips.Each DRAM chip has 1K rows of cells with 1K cells in each row. The time taken for a single refresh operation is 100 nanoseconds. The time required to perform one refresh operation on all the cells in the memory unit is

Question No. 48

A computer system has an L1 cache, an L2 cache, and a main memory unit connected as shown below. The block size in L1 cache is 4 words. The block size in L2 cache is 16 words. The memory access times are 2 nanoseconds. 20 nanoseconds and 200 nanoseconds for L1 cache, L2 cache and main memory unit respectively.

When there is a miss in L1 cache and a hit in L2 cache, a block is transferred from L2 cache to L1 cache. What is the time taken for this transfer?

Question No. 49

A computer system has an L1 cache, an L2 cache, and a main memory unit connected as shown below. The block size in L1 cache is 4 words. The block size in L2 cache is 16 words. The memory access times are 2 nanoseconds. 20 nanoseconds and 200 nanoseconds for L1 cache, L2 cache and main memory unit respectively.

When there is a miss in both L1 cache and L2 cache, first a block is transferred from main memory to L2 cache, and then a block is transferred from L2 cache to L1 cache. What is the total time taken for these transfers?

Question No. 7

How many 32K × 1 RAM chips are needed to provide a memory capacity of 256 K-bytes?

Question No. 29

Consider a 4-way set associative cache (initially empty) with total 16 cache blocks. The main memory consists of 256 blocks and the request for memory blocks is in the following order:

0, 255, 1, 4, 3, 8, 133, 159, 216, 129, 63, 8, 48, 32, 73, 92, 155.

Which one of the following memory block will NOT be in cache if LRU replacement policy is used?

Question No. 51

A hard disk has 63 sectors per track, 10 platters each with 2 recording surfaces and 1000 cylinders. The address of a sector is given as a triple c,h,s, where c is the cylinder number, h is the surface number and s is the sector number. Thus, the 0th sector is addressed as 0,0,0, the 1st sector as 0,0,1, and so on.

The address 400,16,29 corresponds to sector number:

Question No. 52

A hard disk has 63 sectors per track, 10 platters each with 2 recording surfaces and 1000 cylinders. The address of a sector is given as a triple c,h,s, where c is the cylinder number, h is the surface number and s is the sector number. Thus, the 0th sector is addressed as 0,0,0, the 1st sector as 0,0,1, and so on.

The address of the 1039th sector is

Question No. 32

For a magnetic disk with concentric circular tracks, the seek latency is not linearly proportional to the seek distance due to

Question No. 35

For inclusion to hold between two cache levels L1 and L2 in a multi-level cache hierarchy, which of the following are necessary?
I. L1 must be a write-through cache
II. L2 must be a write-through cache
III. The associativity of L2 must be greater than that of L1
IV. The L2 cache must be at least as large as the L1 cache

Question No. 38

In an instruction execution pipeline, the earliest that the data TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffer) can be accessed is

Question No. 71

Consider a machine with a 2-way set associative data cache of size 64Kbytes and block size 16bytes. The cache is managed using 32 bit virtual addresses and the page size is 4Kbyts. A program to be run on this machine begins as follows:
double ARR [1024] [1024];
int i, j ;
/* Initialize array ARR to 0.0 * /
for (i = 0; i < 1024; i ++)
for (j = 0; j < 1024; j ++)
ARR [i] [j] = 0.0;

The size of double is 8Bytes. Array ARR is located in memory starting at the beginning of virtual page 0xFF000 and stored in row major order. The cache is initially empty and no pre-fetching is done. The only data memory references made by the program are those to array ARR

The total size of the tags in the cache directory is

Question No. 72

Consider a machine with a 2-way set associative data cache of size 64Kbytes and block size 16bytes. The cache is managed using 32 bit virtual addresses and the page size is 4Kbyts. A program to be run on this machine begins as follows:
double ARR [1024] [1024];
int i, j ;
/* Initialize array ARR to 0.0 * /
for (i = 0; i < 1024; i ++)
for (j = 0; j < 1024; j ++)
ARR [i] [j] = 0.0;

The size of double is 8Bytes. Array ARR is located in memory starting at the beginning of virtual page 0xFF000 and stored in row major order. The cache is initially empty and no pre-fetching is done. The only data memory references made by the program are those to array ARR

Which of the following array elements has the same cache index as ARR [0] [0]?

Question No. 73

Consider a machine with a 2-way set associative data cache of size 64Kbytes and block size 16bytes. The cache is managed using 32 bit virtual addresses and the page size is 4Kbyts. A program to be run on this machine begins as follows:
double ARR [1024] [1024];
int i, j ;
/* Initialize array ARR to 0.0 * /
for (i = 0; i < 1024; i ++)
for (j = 0; j < 1024; j ++)
ARR [i] [j] = 0.0;

The size of double is 8Bytes. Array ARR is located in memory starting at the beginning of virtual page 0xFF000 and stored in row major order. The cache is initially empty and no pre-fetching is done. The only data memory references made by the program are those to array ARR

The cache hit ratio for this initialization loop is

Question No. 10

Consider a 4-way set associative cache consisting of 128 lines with a line size of 64 words. The CPU generates a 20-bit address of a word in main memory. The number of bits in the TAG, LINE and WORD fields are respectively:

Question No. 11

Consider a disk pack with 16 surfaces, 128 tracks per surface and 256 sectors per track. 512 bytes of data are stored in a bit serial manner in a sector. The capacity of the disk pack and the number of bits required to specify a particular sector in the disk are respectively:

Question No. 80

Consider a machine with a byte addressable main memory of 216 bytes. Assume that a direct mapped data cache consisting of 32 lines of 64 bytes each is used in the system. A 50 × 50 two-dimensional array of bytes is stored in the main memory starting from memory location 1100H. Assume that the data cache is initially empty. The complete array is accessed twice. Assume that the contents of the data cache do not change in between the two accesses.

How many data cache misses will occur in total?

Question No. 81

Consider a machine with a byte addressable main memory of 216 bytes. Assume that a direct mapped data cache consisting of 32 lines of 64 bytes each is used in the system. A 50 × 50 two-dimensional array of bytes is stored in the main memory starting from memory location 1100H. Assume that the data cache is initially empty. The complete array is accessed twice. Assume that the contents of the data cache do not change in between the two accesses.

Which of the following lines of the data cache will be replaced by new blocks in accessing the array for the second time?