A column of height h with a rectangular cross-section of size $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{a\times2a}$ has a buckling load of $P$. If the cross-section is changed to $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{0.5a\;\times\;3a}$ and its height changed to 1.5h, the buckling load of the redesigned column will be

A structural member subjected to compression, has both translation and rotation restrained at one end, while only translation is restrained at the other end. As per IS 456 : 2000, the effective length factor recommended for design is

Consider two axially loaded columns, namely, 1 and 2, made of a linear elastic material with Young's modulus 2×10^{5 }MPa, square cross-section with side 10 mm, and length 1 m. For coloumn 1 one end is fixed and is free Column 2, one end is fixed and the other end is pinned. Based on the Euler's theory the ratio (up to one decimal place) of the buckling load of column 2 to the buckling load of column 1 is _______________